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World Health Organization : Year 2000 ; World Health Organization, Programme on Chemical Safety, No. 00.1: International Programme on Chemical Safety Hazardous Chemicals in Human and Environmental Health a Resource Book for School, College and University Students

By H. Galal-Gorchev

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Book Id: WPLBN0000181027
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 10.4 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Year 2000 ; World Health Organization, Programme on Chemical Safety, No. 00.1: International Programme on Chemical Safety Hazardous Chemicals in Human and Environmental Health a Resource Book for School, College and University Students  
Author: H. Galal-Gorchev
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Gorchev, H. G. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Year 2000 ; World Health Organization, Programme on Chemical Safety, No. 00.1. Retrieved from http://www.worldebooklibrary.net/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
Chemicals have become an indispensable part of our life, sustaining many of our activities, preventing and controlling many diseases and increasing agricultural productivity. The benefits are incalculable, but, on the other hand, chemicals may endanger our health and poison our environment. The nature, number and quantities of chemicals used in countries vary widely according to factors such as the national economy, its industries and agriculture. Thousands of chemicals are synthesized each year to determine if they offer advantages over their predecessors and are viable commercially. It has been estimated that approximately 100,000 chemical substances are at present in commerce, and about 2000 new ones come onto the market every year. The chemical scene is thus constantly changing as new chemicals and formulations supersede older ones, and the quantities produced and used vary with their effectiveness and demand. Many have potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. There are risks from exposure during production, storage, handling, transport, use and disposal of chemicals, as well as from accidental leakage or illegal dumping.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ... ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii 1 . SOURCES OF CHEMICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Naturally occurring chemicals in the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.1 Sources of toxicants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Naturally occurring elements in the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2.1 Fluoride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2.2 Arsenic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Natural food contaminants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Bacterial toxins as food contaminants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3.1 Clostridium botulinum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3.2 Human foodborne botulism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.4 Mycotoxins as natural food contaminants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4.1 Aflatoxins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4.1.1 Sources of aflatoxins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4.1.2 Exposure to aflatoxins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.4.1.3 Effects of aflatoxins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.4.1.4 Preventing human exposure to aflatoxins . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.5 Industrial sources of chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5.1 Minimata and the environmental toxicity of mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.5.1.1 Symptoms of methylmercury poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.5.1.2 Treatment of poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.5.2 Textile manufacturing industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.5.2.1 Sources, exposure and effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.5.3 Asbestos and other fibres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.5.4 Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.5.5 Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.6 Agricultural sources of chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.6.1 Uses of pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.6.2 Contamination of air, soil and water due to pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.6.3 Exposure of humans to pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.7 Urban sources of chemical contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1.7.1 Natural sources of air pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.7.2 Fossil fuels as a source of air pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.7.3 Ozone as a source of air pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.7.4 Variations in air pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1.7.5 Liquid and solid wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1.8 Accidental releases of toxic chemicals . . . . .

 

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