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Legionella : Human Health Criteria Document

By Environmental Protection Agency

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Book Id: WPLBN0000147626
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.6 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007
Full Text

Title: Legionella : Human Health Criteria Document  
Author: Environmental Protection Agency
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Agency, E. P. (n.d.). Legionella : Human Health Criteria Document. Retrieved from http://www.worldebooklibrary.net/


Description
Excerpt: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This document was prepared for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) under contract with ICF Consulting Group (Contract No. 68-C6-0029). Overall planning and management for the preparation of this document was provided by Latisha S. Parker, MS of OST. EPA acknowledges the valuable contributions of those who reviewed this document. They include Lisa Almodovar MPH, Robin Oshiro, MS and Stephen Schaub, Ph.D. of the U.S. EPA. EPA also recognizess the following external peer reviewers for their excellent review and valuable comments on the draft document: Janette E. Stout Ph.D. and Paul H. Eldelstein M.D.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 II. General Information and Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1 A. History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1 B. Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-2 C. Microbiology, Morphology, and Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-6 D. Symbiosis in Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-7 III. Occurrence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 A. Worldwide Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 B. Occurrence in Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-9 1. Natural Surface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-9 2. Groundwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-10 3. Man-Made Waters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-11 C. Occurrence in Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-19 D. Occurrence in Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-20 E. Specific Disease Outbreaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-21 1. Nosocomial Outbreaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-22 2. Outbreaks Among Travelers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-22 3. Community Outbreaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-32 F. Environmental Factors Affecting Legionella Survival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-32 1. Symbiotic Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-32 2. Water Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-35 3. Other Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-36 G. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-37 IV. Health Effects in Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-1 A. Laboratory Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-1 B. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-4 V. Health Effects in Humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

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