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Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium

By Grevatt, Peter C., Ph. D.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000080025
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.5 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007
Full Text

Title: Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium  
Author: Grevatt, Peter C., Ph. D.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

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Grevatt, Ph. D, P. C. (n.d.). Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium. Retrieved from http://www.worldebooklibrary.net/


Description
Excerpt: The purpose of this Toxological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to Cr(VI). It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of Cr(VI). In Section 6, EPA has characterized its overall confidence in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of hazard and dose response. Matters considered in this characterization include knowledge gaps, uncertainties, quality of data, and scientific controversies. This characterization is presented in an effort to make apparent the limitations of the assessment and to aid and guide the risk assessor in the ensuing steps of the risk assessment process. For other general information about this assessment or other questions relating to IRIS, the reader is referred to EPA’s Risk Information Hotline at 513-569-7254.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS—TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (CAS No. 18540-29-9) FOREWORD .................................................................v AUTHORS, CONTRIBUTORS, AND REVIEWERS ................................ vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................. vii 1. INTRODUCTION...........................................................1 2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION RELEVANT TO ASSESSMENTS .....2 3. TOXICOKINETICS RELEVANT TO ASSESSMENTS ............................4 3.1. ABSORPTION FACTORS IN HUMANS AND EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS . . 4 3.1.1. Oral .......................................................4 3.1.2. Inhalation ..................................................4 3.1.3. Metabolism .................................................5 3.1.4. The Essentiality of Chromium ..................................6 4. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION .................................................7 4.1. STUDIES IN HUMANS ..............................................7 4.1.1. Oral .......................................................7 4.1.2. Inhalation ..................................................7 4.2. SUBCHRONIC, CHRONIC STUDIES AND CANCER BIOASSAYS IN ANIMALS ............................................................17 4.2.1. Chronic Oral Studies.........................................17 4.2.2. Subchronic Oral Studies ......................................17 4.2.3. Chronic Inhalation Studies ....................................18 4.2.4. Subchronic Inhalation Studies .................................20 4.3. REPRODUCTIVE/DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES .......................23 4.3.1. Oral Studies................................................23 4.3.2. Inhalation Studies ...........................................26 4.4. OTHER STUDIES..................................................26 4.4.1. Contact Dermatitis ..........................................26 4.4.2. Toxicant Interactions.........................................27 4.4.3. Genotoxicity ...............................................27 4.5. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF MAJOR NONCANCER EFFECTS ....28 4.5.1. Oral Studies ................................................28 4.5.1.1. Human Studies ......................................28 4.5.1.2. Animal Studies ......................................28 4.5.2. Inhalation Studies ............................................29 4.5.2.1. Human Studies ......................................29

 

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