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Toxicological Review of Chlordane (Technical)

By Environmental Protection Agency

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Book Id: WPLBN0000021493
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.4 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: Toxicological Review of Chlordane (Technical)  
Author: Environmental Protection Agency
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

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Agency, E. P. (n.d.). Toxicological Review of Chlordane (Technical). Retrieved from http://www.worldebooklibrary.net/


Description
Excerpt: The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response information in the Integrated Risk Information System pertaining to chronic exposure to chlordane. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of chlordane. In Section 6, EPA has characterized its overall confidence in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of hazard and dose-response (U.S. EPA, 1995a). Matters considered in this characterization include knowledge gaps, uncertainties, quality of data, and scientific controversies. This characterization is presented in an effort to make apparent the limitations of the individual assessments and to aid and guide the risk assessor in the ensuing steps of the risk assessment process. For other general information about this assessment or other questions relating to the Integrated Risk Information System, the reader is referred to EPA’s Risk Information Hotline at (202) 566-1676.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS Authors and Reviewers ...................................................... iv Foreword ................................................................ vii 1.0 Introduction ...........................................................1 2.0 Toxicokinetics Relevant to Assessments .....................................2 3.0 Absorption, Metabolism, Distribution, Excretion, and Toxicokinetics .............3 4.0 Hazard Identification ....................................................5 4.1 Studies in Humans ....................................................5 4.1.1 Noncancer Effects in Humans.......................................5 4.1.2 Cancer Effects in Humans .........................................9 4.1.2.1 Case-control studies........................................9 4.1.2.2 Occupational cohort studies .................................11 4.1.2.3 Case reports.............................................13 4.2 Subchronic and Chronic Studies and Cancer Bioassays in Animals—Oral and Inhalation ......................................................15 4.3 Reproductive/Developmental Studies—Oral and Inhalation .................... 26 4.4 Other Toxicologically Relevant Studies ...................................30 4.4.1 Mechanistic Studies .............................................30 4.4.2 Genotoxicity ..................................................30 4.5 Synthesis and Evaluation of Major Noncancer Effects and Mode of Action— Oral and Inhalation ................................................... 31 4.6 Weight of Evidence Evaluation and Cancer Classification......................32 4.7 Other Hazard Identification Issues .......................................34 4.7.1 Possible Childhood Susceptibility ...................................34 4.7.2 Possible Gender Differences .......................................34 5.0 Dose-Response Assessments .............................................. 35 5.1 Oral Reference Dose .................................................35 5.1.1 Choice of Principal Study and Critical Effect—with Rationale and Justification ...................................................35 5.1.2 Methods of Analysis—Benchmark Dose and No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level/Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level .........................36 5.1.3 Oral Reference Dose Derivation—Including Application of Uncertainty Factors and Modifying Factors .....................................36 5.2 Inhalation Reference Concentration ......................................37 5.2.1 Choice of Principal Study and Critical Effect—with Rationale and Justification ...................................................37 5.2.2 Methods of Analysis—No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level/Lowest- Observed-Adverse-Effect Level and Benchmark Concentration ............ 38

 

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